In a statement released on Twitter, Russia's ambassador to the USA said the country was being "threatened", and issued an ominous warning that reprisals could follow.
The world leaders announced that the strikes targeted positions linked to the chemical weapons facilities of the Syrian government.
A Downing Street spokesperson added: "They agreed it was vital that the use of chemical weapons did not go unchallenged, and on the need to deter the further use of chemical weapons by the Assad regime".
A source familiar with the discussions about Syria said that despite his hawkish views on Russia, Bolton has not used his first days in office to push hard for a more extensive air campaign against targets in Syria.
Russia's denial of the attack comes as Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, is set to study the area for evidence.
Antov added that it was not acceptable to insult Russia's president: "Insulting the President of Russian Federation is unacceptable and inadmissible".
But both Dunford and Defence Secretary Jim Mattis stressed that strikes were not meant to pull America deeper into Syria's war.
USA officials suspect the Russia-backed Assad regime is behind the attack.
Lavrov warned against US military "adventures" in the country, but signaled that Russian Federation remains open for negotiations. Moscow warned against any strikes and threatened to retaliate.
"Russia had a choice - either to risk and respond militarily, which is very unsafe because you can lose, or what is happening now".
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But Ryan again declined to endorse any legislation that would protect Mueller from being fired by Trump. In it, Comey wrote that Trump, in a private meeting, pressed the then-FBI director for his loyalty.
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Dunford noted that the United States military did not coordinate any targets or any plans with the Russians ahead of Friday's strikes.
Elena Supponina, a Middle East specialist at the Russian Institute for Strategic Studies, which advises the Kremlin, said Moscow's warnings about avoiding escalation had been heeded because "no red lines were crossed".
Communication on the line is a near-daily occurrence created to stop mishaps as a US-led coalition conducts an air war against the Islamic State group while Russian Federation pursues its own goals of propping up Assad.
In the near term, the military strike appeared to ramp up a searing war of words between Washington and Moscow, which regarded the action as a attack on Russian Federation itself.
Earlier this week, a U.S. attack on Syria looked imminent as Trump warned Russian Federation to "get ready" for missiles, but then on Thursday he appeared to back away, tweeting that an American attack could come "very soon or not so soon at all".
He vacillated the next day after being criticized for telegraphing war plans and insisted that no final decision had been made.
The air strikes were limited in scope, lasting about an hour. It also said Russian officers found no patients with chemical attack symptoms at a local hospital, and no indication of any burials of victims.
Bolton has called the Syrian civil war a "sideshow" and said he is much more concerned about Iran's role there than about whether Assad remains in power.
"I hope hot heads will cool down and that will be it", he told reporters.